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Whose story do we tell?

Today’s conversation is with Melanie Rawlins from Interpretive Services at Tumacacori National Historical Park. She was interviewed by Kathe Sudano on May 8, 2020.

What are the ways the world is changing regarding environmental and natural history?  Why are we hearing so much about diversity and inclusion?  Why is that conversation necessary in the history of a century old mission in an area that sheltered and supported the Southwest’s Native people such as O’odham, Apache and Yaqui/Yoeme?

Tumacacori National Historical Park has a multitude of cultural influences that span centuries covering the colonial period of American history. The park is in the Santa Cruz River Valley in the region of what is now southern Arizona and northern Sonora, Mexico.  Padre Eusebio Francisco Kino (a Jesuit missionary from Italy) arrived in 1691 to set up a system of missions and smaller communities.

When interviewed for a survey as part of an AZ Master Naturalist /Arizona Association for Environmental Education research project to better understand underrepresented audiences in natural and cultural history programs earlier this year, Melanie Rawlins, NPS Park Interpreter, stated that the park’s most meaningful success in improving their diversity and inclusivity efforts came out of a very informal network that was in the works for several years.  Several agencies were asked to fulfill the commitment to send home Native remains and artifacts discovered accidentally in the building of a Tucson roadway.

 

Rawlins and other NPS team members developed respectful and even affectionate relationships with tribal leaders through the process.

A bond was formed born of respect and the joint effort to honor the deceased.  “If you make friends, they will show up,”  Rawlins stated. The park nurtured and fed the relationship and, as any decent interpreter would, asked how are we doing telling the story? What was missing?  

The NPS park staff had over two hundred webpages with about one third devoted to individual priests.  It felt a bit ‘lopsided’ per Rawlins as there were clearly stories not being told.  Using a searchable database containing individual, handwritten mission records and diaries that are still being translated called Mission 2000, more of the contributions to the community from underrepresented individuals are being revealed.   People who might not have been educated or able to write themselves are still part of the story thanks to the efforts of staff and volunteers that link families and events together using baptismal, burial or marriage ceremony records. Efforts are still underway to recruit volunteer translators to comb through the collection.  

The park website also has activities to encourage students to think in a critical way about how the early residents may have been portrayed.  The relationship between the Native Americans of the area and the Spanish, Christianized natives, and mestizos was a relatively peaceful one. Native Americans were encouraged to learn a trade, worship in the church, and become baptized.  The balance of power had shifted and per the Tumacacori records, discontent among some of the native people led to a well-organized revolt in 1751. 

Tumacacori has been working to make all aspects of their interpretation more inclusive of the indigenous story. They created an event to celebrate the O’odham culture, and one to celebrate the Yaqui/Yoeme culture.  There is a recently completed park video, in which the O’odham are the base of the story, rather than the Spanish. The park has revised the self-guided tour, working to keep the O’odham residents in view at all times. Piece by piece, Tumacacori NPS is trying to place the indigenous residents in the forefront.

Lesson plans available on the Tumacacori website for teachers ask students,  “how can a word choice influence perspective?  How do the reports and letters of the Pima Uprising of 1751 use connotative and denotative meanings to portray the events?”  By “providing various answers to questions, students have an opportunity to investigate some of the possible causes of the rebellion.”

Are you interested in journeying into the past?  Tumacacori National Historical Park is always interested in volunteers that help to connect the pieces of each person’s history.  In this way, the park is striving to tell everyone’s story.   

 

  

 

 

EE Organizations in the Pandemic

by Kelly Jay Smith, University of Arizona

In the wake of pandemic many Environmental Education (EE) organizations across Arizona and the nation have been experiencing major setbacks.

In an attempt to measure the effects of the pandemic on the EE field, the Lawrence Hall of Science – part of the University of California Berkeley, surveyed nearly 1,000 EE organizations. They found the 63% percent of EE & outdoor science organizations are not if they will be able to open again if pandemic restrictions and impacts last until the end of the year.

You can read the full policy briefing from this study at:

The Impact of COVID-19 on Environmental Education and Outdoor Science Education

However, with science museums, residential programs, and other formal/informal environmental & science education institutions not able to engage the public in the usual face-to-face programs throughout the pandemic, new ways of engaging the public in a safe way have been coming to the forefront.  The Lawerence Hall of Science has attempted to be a part of this solution.  Lawerence Hall of Science, the developer of the Amplify Science, FOSS, and SEPUP science curriculums, has coordinated with the publishers of these curriculums to make sure environmental & science learning can continue at home.  This includes providing access to digital simulations, video lessons, allowing unregistered user access to websites, and much more.  You can learn more about what they are offering by following the link below.

https://www.lawrencehallofscience.org/about/newsroom/in_the_news/learning-at-home

This same type of innovation can be found here close to home in Arizona, as well.  The Cooper Center for Environmental Learning has created Camp Cooper Online – a free video series for K-5 students.  These videos created by the educators at the Cooper Center have created activities that can be done at home while viewing the videos.  More information about what the Cooper Center is doing can be found in the link below.      

https://coopercenter.arizona.edu/

Environmental Education has always been about exploring the world around us.  During this unprecedented time in our history, using innovative ways to bring both science and environmental education into the home is more important than ever.

Community Science in Conservation

by Annia Quiroz of Central Arizona Conservation Alliance

What is public participation in scientific research (PPSR)? PPSR is more commonly known as community science aka citizen science. These are initiatives where the public is involved in one or more phases of scientific research from defining questions to using results. A few years ago organizations began recognizing the limitations of the word “citizen”. The word citizen in citizen science was originally intended to distinguish amateur data collectors from professional scientists, not to describe the citizenship status of the volunteers. No matter where a volunteer was born their contribution to science and conservation programs is valued. 

Not only this, but the term community science also means we must expand how we think about the process of community science. It involves local knowledge, collective action and empowerment. By creating an even more collaborative process, bringing in the community scientists to participate in the decision making, communities are drawing closer to better conservation and livelihood outcomes, that are in synergy with local ecosystem-based management trends.

One common question asked by participating volunteers is, “what are the impacts out work has and how is the data collected used”? This is a great question.

Community science can have many uses and impacts. Some examples are: 

  1. Development of plans (ie. safety, management, restoration)
  2. Community resiliency and preparedness
  3. Policy
  4. Floristic inventories and herbarium collections
  5. Further research and research questions
  6. Community scientists as ambassadors!

It needs to be said that this isn’t an all-inclusive list and one we are still learning about. Touching on number 6, community science is critically important as the need for community input in scientific processes and policy development are ever more clear. While the contribution of data for specific projects is very valuable to scientific research, we cannot understate the importance of the community scientists themselves. 

Not only do they gathering data and participate in the scientific process but, through this participation, their passion and experiences they become ambassadors and champions of the work. They play a critical role in sharing important messages of conservation, or whatever the project entails. 

There are many different ways to get involved in community science projects. For example, two initiatives the Central Arizona Conservation Alliance is helping lead:

  1. The Metro Phoenix EcoFlora project

The EcoFlora project is a community science project using iNaturalist to learn more about the biodiversity of Metro Phoenix. Urban ecosystems are understudied, and plants are especially overlooked. Every month you can also join a new EcoQuest; hide-and-seek games for urban biodiversity, seeking certain plants or plant interactions. Their results provide information for research, such as pollinator counts, invasive species mapping, or wildlife habitat.

  1. Desert Defenders  

Desert Defenders is a community science program focused on finding, mapping and removing invasive species at local parks, preserves and natural areas. Invasive species are one of the biggest threats to healthy ecosystems. The data collected through the tireless work of our Defenders is crucial for park staff and land managers to protect the desert parks we all love.

More community science links:

https://cazca.org/project/desert-defenders/

https://cazca.org/project/metro-phoenix-ecoflora/

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1462901119300942

https://gsmit.org/why-we-are-changing-citizen-science-to-community-science/